Skip to content

Scientific Decision Making: How to Learn from the Best

Listen to Audio Version:
Scientific Decision Making: How to Learn from the Best

Decisions play a pivotal role in shaping our lives and the future we envision for ourselves. While we may not have complete control over every aspect of our lives, making informed decisions aligned with our goals is crucial.

DALL·E 2024-03-18 09.05.50 - A vibrant pop art style image illustrating the concept of decision making, without any text. The scene features a person at a crossroad, facing multip

Despite the importance of decisions, the science behind decision-making remains a mystery. It's believed that this process is intricately linked to various areas of the brain, working together to process sensory information. Although the exact mechanism is still unclear, ongoing scientific research offers insights that could enhance the efficiency of our decision-making process.

This comprehensive guide explores the scientific approach to decision-making, which many regard as the gold standard for navigating complex choices. By leveraging evidence, analytical reasoning, and systematic processes, scientific decision-making enables individuals and organisations to optimise outcomes and learn from the best practices in the field.

What is Scientific Decision Making?

Scientific Decision Making

Click here to subscribe to TAB's monthly newsletter

Scientific decision-making is a systematic approach that involves gathering data, analysing information, and using logical reasoning to make choices. Unlike intuitive decision-making, which is based on gut feelings and experiences, the scientific method relies on empirical evidence and structured processes to reach conclusions. This approach is especially valuable in fields with high stakes, such as healthcare, business, and engineering, where evidence-based decisions can lead to significant advancements and improvements.

The benefits of scientific decision-making

Adopting a scientific approach to decision-making offers several advantages:

  • Improved Accuracy: Basing decisions on evidence and analysis increases the likelihood of making the best choice.
  • Reduced Bias: Scientific decision-making helps minimise personal biases and subjective judgments that can cloud decision-making.
  • Enhanced Efficiency: Systematic processes streamline decision-making, saving time and resources.
  • Better Outcomes: Evidence-based decisions are more likely to lead to positive outcomes and success.

For business owners, adopting this approach can significantly improve the accuracy of choices, reduce biases, and enhance efficiency. This method equips leaders with tools for informed, efficient, and effective decision-making, driving success and fostering sustainable growth.

What affects our decision-making?

Forbes magazine published an article stating that two factors influence our decision-making: the quality and quantity of information we receive and fatigue.

DALL·E 2024-03-18 09.19.55 - Create an extended pop art style image, using the previously generated image as a base but expanding the scene to eliminate any block colors on the si

System 1 and System 2 Thinking

In his Nobel Prize-winning work, Daniel Kahneman describes two modes of thinking in his book "Thinking, Fast and Slow". System 1 is instant, survival-oriented, heuristic, and emotionally driven. It allows us to make quick decisions in situations requiring immediate action. System 2, on the other hand, is thoughtful, logical, and evidence-based, involving more reflective and deliberate processes. Scientific decision-making primarily engages System 2 thinking, allowing for more reasoned and analytical choices.


In this digital age, we are bombarded with vast amounts of information. While this abundance allows us to explore data in depth, it can overwhelm us, hindering our decision-making abilities. Research by Columbia University professor Sheena Sethi Iyengar, described in this study, found that people are more likely to make a decision when presented with fewer options. This phenomenon demonstrated through a jam-tasting study, shows that simplicity can lead to more decisive actions, although information overload remains a challenge.


Fatigue is a common challenge in our fast-paced world, impacting our decision-making abilities in both professional and personal environments. When tired, our cognitive functions can become impaired, making it harder to engage in conscious thought processes. In such cases, relying on intuition or 'gut feelings' can provide clarity and direction. Research suggests that unconscious processes can offer valuable insights, guiding us towards optimal choices even when fatigued.

Entrepreneurial Mindsets

Entrepreneurs often exhibit (over)confidence, (over)optimism and a belief that they control their destiny. They tend to predict future outcomes and make quick decisions in ambiguous situations with limited information, often extrapolating generalities from a few examples of desired outcomes. Accountability can moderate these traits, producing more rounded decision-making. This balance is important because, despite the challenges of an entrepreneurial mindset, it is essential for fostering innovation and driving entrepreneurial success. Therefore, nurturing and moderating this mindset in equal measure is vital for sustainable growth.

8 Steps to Effective Scientific Decision-Making for Business Leaders

  1. Define the Decision: Clearly articulate the problem or decision at hand, understanding its context within your business operations and strategic goals.
  2. Collect Data: Gather pertinent information and data, including market research, customer feedback, financial reports, and competitive analysis.
  3. Analyse Data: Use analytical tools and techniques to sift through the collected data, uncovering trends, patterns, and opportunities.
  4. Consider Alternatives: Identify a range of potential solutions or actions, recognising innovative and unconventional options.
  5. Evaluate Options: Assess the pros and cons of each alternative, weighing them against your business goals, resource constraints, and potential risks and rewards.
  6. Decide and Act: Select the option that best aligns with your objectives and criteria, using decision-making models if necessary.
  7. Implement the Decision: Execute the chosen course of action with thorough planning and coordination.
  8. Review and Reflect: Evaluate the outcomes against your expectations, learning from the process to refine future decision-making.

Advantages for Business Owners

Embracing the scientific approach to decision-making offers myriad benefits:

  • Accuracy and Reliability: Decisions based on data and structured analysis are more likely to be correct and lead to desired outcomes.
  • Objectivity: This method reduces personal bias, allowing for more balanced and fair decision-making.
  • Efficiency: A systematic approach streamlines decision-making, saving valuable time and resources.
  • Improved Performance: Evidence-based decisions drive growth, profitability, and competitive advantage.

Final Words

Adopting a scientific approach to decision-making is a strategic imperative for business owners navigating today's complex environment. By following a structured methodology, relying on data, and learning from both successes and failures, you can make informed decisions that propel your business forward. Whether facing daily operational choices or strategic dilemmas, scientific decision-making provides a robust framework for achieving optimal outcomes and leading your business to success.

The Alternative Board community is an excellent resource for entrepreneurs and business owners. Our experienced facilitators and peer boards provide valuable support and share their knowledge to help you make informed business decisions. Don't hesitate to contact us if you think this resource could benefit you.




We've got boards running across the UK

Discover more by finding your nearest TAB board facilitator.

Latest insights and articles

Cash Flow Forecasting: The Ultimate Guide for Business Success in 2024

11 July 2024 | 4 minute read

Master cash flow forecasting for business success in 2024. Explore techniques, tips, and a template to effectively navigate financial challenges and opportunities.

10 Best Business Development Tools for Growth in 2024

11 July 2024 | 3 minute read

Discover the top business development tools for 2024 and how they can drive growth and success for your business.

The five best business analysis tools 2024

5 July 2024 | 6 minute read

Unlock the potential of your business with the top five business analysis tools for 2024. From SWOT analysis to personal visions, discover how to drive growth and success effectively.